Classical Music

The Music divine therapy which helps to get peace of mind, to fee joy, to cure deceases and many more. In the ancient era the divine power created four VEDAS. Such Vedas are Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda and Atharvaveda, of which Samveda gives knowledge of music. During that time knowledge of music was to be obtained from masters and also by the self experiences from the surroundings. The saints in that period who have got mastery in divine music created musical notes from the natural sounds of some animals and birds which have constant frequencies. By frequency we mean the number of vibrations per second of a vibrating object. If the range and speed of vibrations remains fixed we say it has constant frequency. The sound created with constant frequency is termed as NOTE, rather musical note, which everyone would like to hear and enjoy.

The seven notes were created with an increasing frequencies as in the order of (1) Sa {Sadaj} (2) Re {Reshabh} (3) Ga {Gandhar} (4) Ma {Madhyam} (5) Pa {Pancham} (6) Dha {Dhaivat} (7) Ni { Nishad}. After these seven notes another note with the frequency doubled than 'Sa', denoted by Sa is added in the set of those seven notes and there formed a set of eight notes {Sa, Re, Ga, Ma, Pa, Dha, Ni, Sa}. A set of eight notes is called an Octave. There are three octaves in presenting the music called, Lower Octave, Middle Octave and Upper Octave. Generally the vocal range of a singer falls within these octaves. Sa and Pa are the fixed notes in the octave and the remaining have one alternative. Each of Re, Ga, Dha and Ni has one more alternative note with the frequency lower than it known as lower sharp {Komal} and Ma has the alternative with frequency higher that it known as upper sharp {Tivra}. They are denoted by Re' {Komal Re}, Ga' {Komal Ga}, Ma' {Tivra Ma}, Dha' {Komal Dha}, Ni' {Komal Ni}. The total 13 notes are {Sa, Re', Re, Ga', Ma, Ma', Pa, Dha', Dha, Ni', Ni, Sa} creates the complete octave and in mathematical terms we observe that their frequencies are in Geometric Progression.

Every cultural society has its own types of music depending on different regions of different countries but basic notes play almost the same role in each type. The style of singing and pronunciation of respective languages create different style. Our target to deal with Indian music which has in general two patterns, Hindustani Music of north India and Karnataka Music of south India. The style of Hindustani music was developed during Mugal period while the Karnataka music is very ancient. Our intention here is to discuss about Hindustani music. The more information is left for the next issue.

- Swar Sadhana

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